Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat a number of fungal infections. It interferes with the fungal synthesis of ergosterol, a constituent of fungal cell membranes, as well as certain enzymes.
It’s a metabolite of Itraconazole, an orally active antimycotic structurally related to Ketoconazole. It inhibits the fungal-mediated synthesis of ergosterol, via inhibition of lanosterol 14α-demethylase.
Ciclopirox is a synthetic antifungal agent for topical treatment of onychomycosis. Ciclopirox chelates polyvalent cations, resulting in inhibition of metal-dependent enzymes that are responsible for degrading peroxides inside fungal cells.